According to growing method of forest woody trees are divided into:
Bare-root – these are seedlings, saplings, half grown and full grown plants from generatively and vegetatively derived stems in different substrates on beds, for forest renewal and afforestation which are picked up with exposed roots.
Covered-root – the plant is grown in more or less durable cover (solid - do not allow the roots to grow, must be removed when planting, soft - allow the roots to grow, do not need to be removed when planting, eg RCK) filled with a substrate.
Labeling the origin of the planting material
- The registration number of the recognized unit
- Ensures unambiguous identification of a recognized unit in order to identify the origin of reproductive material of forest woody species.
For example: CZ-2-2A-SM-3141-16-4-J-G
- designation of the Czech Republic
- numeric code of category of reproductive material (1-identified, 2-selected, 3-qualified, 4-tested)
- numeric code of type of origin (1-source of seeds, 2A-growth of phenotype class A, 2B-growth of phenotype class B, 2C - growth of phenotypic class C, 3-seed set, 4-parent tree, 5-clone, 6- mixture of clones)
- abbreviation of tree species here
- serial number of sources
- numeric code of provenance - natural forest regions (PLO). Table of Natural Forests of the Czech Republic here
- numeric code of height zone, the degree of forest vegetation. Table of forest vegetation grades here
- designation of a public administration body here
- designation of recognized units located in the gene base (if the recognized units is in the gene base)
Quality features of standard planting material
1. External (morphological features)
Morphological features are measurable or visually detectable parameters of the planting material: the height of the aboveground part (measured from the root neck to the top of the terminal bud), the shape of the aboveground part, the thickness of the root neck (measured just above the stem's contact with the soil) the volume of the aboveground part, the volume of fine roots in the volume of the entire root system, the length of the root root, the inadmissible deformation of the root systems, the maximum diameter of the cutting wounds. An integral part of the quality of the planting material is its health condition.
Planting material is characterized by maximum age and cultivation. A standard set of planting material is considered as one that does not contain more than 5% of non-standard individual plants. The standard planting material should have a continuous trunk with relatively regular lateral shoots and buds.
The terminal shoots should be terminated by a mature, intact, with terminal bud (the requirement for maturity does not apply to covered-root planting material). The aboveground part must not be mechanically damaged except for intentionally shaping of the crown. Shaping means cutting or removing side branches. A fresh wound is allowed but its diameter may not exceed 6 mm.
Seedlings and saplings with multi-terminal shoots on trunk are acceptable for deciduous trees. Multiple trunks (eg "twins", "triplets") are not allowed.
The size of the root system of the standard planting material must be in equal proportion to the size of the aboveground part corresponding to the amount of fine roots (weaker roots less than 1 mm in height).
The root system must not be mechanically damaged. An exception is intentional cutting of roots. The maximum thickness of the intentionally shortened roots may not exceed 6 mm; maximum cutting thickness of up to 10 mm for half grown plants larger than 81 cm is allowed.
2. Internal (physiological features)
The physiological features of the planting material include water content of the mesh, content of the nutrients, degree of vegetative tranquility, state of terminal buds, the potential growth of the roots and the mycorrhizal state.
The detection of physiological features is usually destructive. Therefore, it only occurs with samples of planting material. Simple evaluations can be performed in nurseries under operating conditions but most tests are performed in specialized centres.
Standard planting material should have optimal content of water and nutrients in the mesh.
During spring planting the bare-root planting material should not have any buds.
Parameters of material suitable for planting of common commercial quality here
Parameters of root system of material suitable for planting of common commercial quality here
Unacceptable defects of planting material of normal commercial quality here